Circulo De Vienna Rudolf Carnap Bibliography

Born in Ronsdorf, Germany, Rudolf Carnap studied at the Universities of Freiburg and Jena from 1910 to 1914. He received his doctorate from Jena, where he had studied under Gottlob Frege, who, along with Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell profoundly influenced his thought. In 1926, on the invitation of Morris Schlick, he joined the faculty of the University of Vienna. An active participant in the discussions of the Vienna Circle, he soon rose to eminence in the movement of logical positivism, or logical empiricism. From Vienna he went to Prague, and in 1930 he founded, with Hans Reichenbach in Berlin, the journal Erkenntnis, the main organ for the publications of the logical positivists and empiricists. In 1935, with the rise of Nazism, he moved to the United States, where he occupied teaching and research positions at the University of Chicago, Columbia University, the University of Illinois, and the University of California in Los Angeles. When he died, he was the most famous of the logical empiricists. Camap's book, The Logical Structure of the World (1928), established the basic project of logical empiricism. Carnap sought to demonstrate that, by the method of construction from elementary experiences, all the objects in the world that were also objects of knowledge could be attained. As a consequence, unless a statement could be validated either by rules of logic or by experimental testing in experience, it could be dismissed as devoid of knowledge. He thus proceeded to dismiss most of traditional philosophy and metaphysics as consisting of pseudo-problems. Carnap maintained that the genuine task of philosophy was the logical analysis of the language of science. In The Logical Syntax of Language (1934), he introduced basic distinctions, such as object-language and meta-language, formal mode and material mode of expression, that were to be widely accepted in philosophy. However, neither his symbolism nor his restriction of philosophy to the logical analysis of syntax---i.e., the purely formal features of language---endured. Influenced by Alfred Tarski, Carnap came to appreciate the need to take account of nonformal meanings (those involving external reference). This led to his publication of The Introduction of Semantics (1942), a work restricted to exclusively extensional logic, as was the subsequent volume, Formalization of Semantics (1943). However, he moved on to consider non-extensional logics in Meaning and Necessity. A leader in the unity of science movement, Carnap also wrestled with the empirical verification principle of meaning and the problems of induction and probability theory. His last major treatise was the book Logical Foundations of Probability (1950).

Bibliography of Carnap's Works

[under construction]

The primary source of my information is the Schilpp volume dedicated to Carnap: Paul Arthur Schilpp (ed.) The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap (La Salle, Il.: Open Court Publishing Co., 1963), pp. 1018 - 1056. The Schilpp volume is still in print and may be purchased on-line, for example at


Der Raum. Ein Beitrag zur Wissenschaftslehre. Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der hohen philosophischen Fakultät der Universität Jena. (Jena: Universität Jena, 1921)

Contents: Introduction. Formal space. Intuitive space. Physical space. The mutual relation among formal, intuitive, and physical space. The relations between experience and knowledge of space. Bibliography and suggested reading. Biography.


"Der Raum. Ein Beitrag zur Wissenschaftslehre." Kant-Studien Ergänzungshefte Nr. 56. (Berlin: Verlag von Reuther & Reichard, 1922). 87 pages.


"Über die Aufgabe der Physik und die Anwendung des Grundsatzes der Einfachstheit" Kant-Studien (Berlin), Band 28 Heft 1/2 (1923), pp. 90 - 107.


"Dreidimensionalität des Raumes und Kausalität: Eine Untersuchung über den logischen Zusammenhang zweier Fiktionen" Annalen der Philosophy und Philosophischen Kritik (Leipzig), Band 4 Heft 3 (1924), pp. 105-130.


"Über die Abhängigkeit der Eigenschaften des Raumes von denen der Zeit" Kant-Studien (Berlin) Band 30 Heft 3/4 (1925), pp. 331-345


"Physikalische Begriffsbildung" in Ungerer, Emil (ed.) Wissen und Wirken, Einzelschriften zu den Grundfragen des Erkennens und Schaffens, Band 39 (Karlsruhe: Verlag G. Braun, 1926). 66 pages.

Contents: Introduction, the task of physics. The first level of physical concept formation, qualitative level: Perceived things and properties. The second level of physical concept formation, quantitative level: Physical magnitudes. The third level of physical concept formation, abstract level: The four-dimensional world process. Bibliography. Index of topics and individuals cited.


1. Carnap wrote a synopsis of Physikalische Begriffsbildung: "Physikalische Begriffsbildung" Annalen der Philosophie und philosophischen Kritik (Leipzig) Band 6, Heft 4 (July 18, 1927), pp. 76 - 77.

2. "Eigentliche und uneigentliche Begriffe" Symposion: Philosophische Zeitschrift für Forschung und Aussprache (Berlin-Schlachtensee) Band 1 Heft 4 (1927), pp. 355 - 374.
In the Schilpp volume, what I have written as "Aussprache" is written "Ausprache."


1. Der Logische Aufbau der Welt (Berlin-Schlachtensee: Weltkreis Verlag, 1928). 290 pages.

Contents: Preface (Vienna, May 1928). Introduction: Task and Plan of the Investigations. Preperatory Elucidations. On the form of scientific assertions. Overview of the types of objects and their relations. The problems of form of a constitution system. The forms of level. The form of system. (Formal investigations. Material investigations.) The basis. (The basic elements. The basic relations.) The form of objects. The form of presentation of a constitution system. Development of a constitution system The lower levels: Objects of one's own psyche. The middle level: physical objects. The upper levels: mental objects and objects of other psyches. Clarification of some philosophical problems on the basis of the constitution theory. Some problems of being. The psycho-physical problem. The constitutional or empirical problem of reality. The problem of metaphysical reality. Task and limits of Science. Summary. Bibliography and index.

2. Scheinprobleme in der Philosophie: Das Fremdpsychische und der Realismusstreit (Berlin-Schlachtensee: Weltkreis-Verlag, 1928). 46 pages.


1. Notice of Paul Bommersheim Beiträge zur Lehre von Ding und Gesetz. Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik (Leipzig) Band 36 Heft 1 (1929), pp. 27-28 of the separately paged reviews (= ger. "Literaturberichte")

2. Abriss der Logistik, Mit Besonderer Berücksichtigung der Relationstheorie und ihrer Anwendungen Volume two in the series "Schriften zur wissenschaftlichen Weltauffassung, edited by Philipp Frank and Moritz Schlick. (Wien: Verlag von Julius Springer, 1929). 114 pages.

Contents: Preface (Vienna in January 1929). System of Logistic (sections 1 through 29). The task of logistic. Functions. Truth-functions. Axioms. Theorems of propositional logic. Universal and existential propositions. Symbols. Classes. The theory of types. Class operations. Relations. Operations of relations. The hierarchy of types. Symbolic functions of converse, regions and field. Chains. Operations. Three and many-placed relations. The classes of 0, 1, and 2; freedom from ambiguity. The principle of abstraction. The cardinal numbers. isomorphism; the relational (ordinal?) numbers. The R-chains. Groups. Finite and infinite. Various analyses of relation. Progressions. Series. Limit concepts. Continuity. Applied logistic. Section thirty, on the axiomatic method. Set theory and arithmetic (sections 31 and 32). AS [Axiom system] of set theory. Peanos axiom system for the natural numbers. Geometry (sections 33 - 35). Axioms of topology (axioms of surroundings). Axioms of projective geometry (first form: planes as classes). Axiom system of projective geometry (second form: planes as relations). Physics (sections 36 - 37). Axiom system of space-time topology. Determination and causality. Theory of relationship [Verwandtschaft] (section 38). Axiom system of relationship-relations [Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen] among people. Analysis of knowledge (section 39). The lowest levels of the constitution system. Analysis of language (sections 40 - 43). Logical semasiology of a definite language. Exhibition of the logical skeleton of presented sentences. Mass numbers. Situations and events. Place and time. Appendix (sections 44 -50). Exercises. Overview of the most important logistical symbols. Bibliography. Suggested reading. Index of people and topics, with comparitive terminology. List of logical constants.

3. A notice of Adolf Fraenkel Einleitung in die Mengenlehre 3. Auflage Annalen der Philosophie und philosophischen Kritik (Leipzig) Band 8 Heft 1/2 (15 May 1929), page 10 of separately paged "Literatureberichte."

4. Tagung fuer Erkenntnislehre der exakten Wissenschaften. In Prag, von Rudolf Carnap, Philipp Frank, Hans Hahn und Hans Reichenbach. Annalen der Philosophie und philosophischen Kritik Band 8 Heft 4/5 (31 July 1929) pp. 113-114.

Proceedings of this congress were published in Erkenntnis (Band 1 Heft 2/4, pp. 89-339).

5. Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung: Der Wiener Kreis Von Hans Hahn, Otto Neurath, und Rudolf Carnap. Veröffentlichung des Vereines Ernst Mach Heft I. (Wien: Artur Wolf Verlag, 1929). 64 pages.

Contents: Preface (Vienna, August 1929). The Vienna circle of the scientific world-view. Prehistory. The Circle around Schlick. The scientific world-view. Problem areas. Foundations of Arithmetic. Foundations of physics. Foundations of geometry. The problem of foundations in biology and psychology. Foundations of the socal sciences. Review and outlook. Suggested readings. Bibliography. The members of the Vienna Circle. Authors closest to the Vienna Circle. Leading representatives of the scientific world-view. Index of names.

6. Review of Adolf Fraenkel Einleitung in die Mengenlehre 3. Auflage Kant Studien (Berlin) Band 34 Heft 3/4 (1929), pp. 428-429.

7. Review of Karl Menger Dimensionstheorie in ibid., pp. 457-458.


1. Notice. Herbert Feigl Theorie und Erfahrung in der Physik, Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik (Leipzig) Band 37 Heft 1 (1930), p. 6 of seperately paged "Literatureberichte."

2. "Die alte und die neue Logik" Erkenntnis (Leipzig) Band 1 heft 1 (1930), pp. 12 - 26.

3. "Einheitswissenschaft auf physischer Basis. Ibid., p. 77.

4. Review of Felix Kaufmann Das Unendliche in der Mathematik und seine Ausschaltung, Deutsche Literaturzeitung (Leipzig), 51. Jahrgang (3. Folge, 1. Jahrgang) Heft 35 (August 30, 1930), cols. 1674-1678.

5. "Die Mathematik als Zweig der Logik" Blätter für deutsche Philosophie (Berlin) Band 4 Heft 3/4 (1930), pp. 298 - 310.

6. "Diskussion über Wahrschenlichkeit." Von Edgar Zilsel und anderen. Erkenntnis (Leipzig) Band 1 Heft 2/4 (1930) pp. 260 - 285.

7. Bericht über Untersuchungen zur allgemeinen Axiomatik. Ibid., pp. 303 - 307.

8. A bibliography of Rudolf Carnap in Ibid., pp. 315 - 317.


1. "Ergebnisse der logischen Analyse der Sprache" Forschungen und Fortschritte (Berlin) 7. Jahrgang, Nummer 13 (May 1, 1931), pp. 183 - 184.

2. A review of A.N. Whitehead and Bertrand Russell Principia Mathematica, 2nd ed. Erkenntnis (Leipzig) Band 2 Heft 1 (1931), pp. 73 - 75.

3. A review of Eino Kaila Der logistische Neupositivismus.Ibid., pp. 75 - 77.

4. "Die logizistische Grundlegung der Mathematik" Ibid. Band 2 Heft 2/3 (1931), pp. 91 - 105.

5. "Diskussion zur Grundlegung der Mathematik" Von Hans Hahn und anderen. Ibid., pp. 135 - 149.


1. "Überwindung der Metaphysik durch logische Analyse der Sprache" Erkenntnis (Leipzig) Band 2 Heft 4 (1932), pp. 219 - 241.

2. "Die Sprache der Physik" Ibid., p. 311.

3. "Psychologie in physikalischer Sprache" Ibid., p. 311.

4. "Die physikalische Sprache als Universalsprache der Wissenschaft" Ibid. Band 2 Heft 5/6 (1932), pp. 432 - 465.

5. "Psychologie in physikalischer Sprache" Ibid. Band 3 Heft 2/3 (December 30, 1932), pp. 107 - 142.

6. "Erwiderung auf die vorstehenden Aufsätze von E. Zilsel und K. Duncker" Ibid., pp. 177 - 188.

7. "Über Protokollsätze" Ibid., pp. 215 - 228. A reply to Neurath's article in the same issue of Erkenntnis on pp. 204 - 214.


1. A review of Philipp Frank Das Kausalgesetz und seine Grenzen in Kant-Studien (Berlin) Band 38 Heft 1/2 (1933), p. 275.

2. "L'Ancienne et la Nouvelle Logique" Trad. du generale Ernest Vouillemin. Introd. de Marcel Boll. Actualites scientifiques et industrielles, 76. (Paris: Hermann & Cie., 1933). 36 pages.

Revised translation of 1930-2.

3. Review of Bertrand Russell and A. N. Whitehead, Einführung in die mathematische Logik, Erkenntnis (Leipzig) Band 3 Heft 4/6 (September 5, 1933), pp 436 - 437.


1. "On the Character of Philosophic Problems," translated by W.M. Malisoff, in Philosophy of Science (Baltimore) volume 1 number 2 (April 1934), p. 251.

2. A review of Walter Dubislav Die Philosophie der Mathematik in der Gegenwart, Erkenntnis (Leipzig), Band 4 Heft 1 (May 8, 1934), pp. 64 - 65.

3. A review of C.I. Lewis & C.H. Langford Symbolic Logic, Ibid., pp. 65 - 66.

4. The Unity of Science, translated and with an introduction by Max Black in Psyche Miniatures, General Series no. 63 (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1934). 101 pages.

Contents: Introduction by M. Black. Author's introduction (Prague, January 1934). Advice to the reader. Physics as a universal science. The heterogeneity of science. Languages. Protocol language. The physical language as an intersubjective language. The physical language as a universal language. Protocol language as a part of physical language. Unified science in physical language.

5. Die Aufgabe der Wissenschaftslogik Einheitswissenschaft, schriften hrsg. von Otto Neurath in Verbindung mit Rudolf Carnap und Hans Hahn. Heft 3. (Wien: Verlag Gerold & Co., 1934). 30 pages.

6. Logische Syntax der Sprache Schriften zur wissenschaftlichen Weltauffassung, hrsg. von Philipp Frank und Moritz Schlick, Band 8 (Wien: Verlag von Julius Springer, 1934). 274 pages.

Contents: Introduction--What is Logical syntax? Languages as calculi. Part I--The definite language I. Formation and transformation rules, and remarks on definite forms of language. Part II--Formal construction of the syntax of language I. Part III--The indefinite language II. Formation and transformation rules, along with further investigations. Part IV--General syntax. Object language and syntax language. The syntax of an arbitrary language (in general; variables; arithmetic; translation; extensionality). Part V--Philosophy and Syntax. On the form of the sentences of the logic of science. Logic of science as syntax. Bibliography and Index.

The English translation of Logische Syntax appears here also as 1937-1.

7. "Meaning, Assertion, and Proposal" Philosophy of Science (Baltimore) vol. 1 no. 3 (July 1934), pp. 359 - 360. This is a reply to Dewey's article of the same title in Ibid., pp. 237 - 238.

8. La Science et la Metaphysique devant L'Analyse Logique du Langage Trad. du general Ernest Vouillemin. Introd. de Marcel Boll. Actualites scientifiques et industrielles, 172. (Paris: Hermann & Cie., 1934). 44 pages. Revised translation of 1932-1.

9. "Theoretische Fragen und praktische Entscheidungen" Natur und Geist (Dresden) 2. Jahrgang Nummer 9 (September 1934), pp. 257 - 260.

10. "The Rejection of Metaphysics" Psyche: An Annual of General and Linguistic Philosophy (Cambridge and London), vol. 14 (1934), pp. 100 - 111.

11. "Die Antinomien und die Unvollständigkeit der Mathematik" Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik (Leipzig) Band 41 Heft 2 (1934), pp. 263 - 284.


1. Philosophy and Logical Syntax [Psyche Miniatures, General Series no. 70] (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1935). 100 pages.

A revised version of three lectures given on the 8th, 10th, and 12th of October 1934 at the University of London. See 1934-10 and 1944-1.

Contents: Preface (Prague, Nov. 1934). The rejection of metaphysics. Verafiability. Metaphysics. Problems of reality. Ethics. Metaphysics as expression. Psychology. Logical analysis. Logical syntax of language. "Formal" theory. Formation rules. Transformation rules. Syntactical terms. L-terms. Content. Pseudo-object sentences. The material and the formal modes of speech. Syntax as the method of philosophy. The material mode of speech. Modalities. Relativity in regard to language. Pseudo-questions. Epistemology. Natural philosophy. What physicalism asserts. What physicalism does not assert. The unity of Science. Literature.

2. "Formalwissenschaft und Realwissenschaft" Erkenntnis (Leipzig) Band 5 Heft 1 (March 31, 1935), pp. 30 - 37.

3. "Les Concepts psychologiques et les concepts physiques sont-ils foncierement differents?" Trad. par Robert Bouvier. Revue de synthese (Paris), t. 10, no. 1 (April 1935), pp. 43 - 53.

The original german version of this article was not published.

4. "Ein Gültigkeitskriterium für die Sätze der klassischen Mathematik" Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik (Leipzig) Band 42 Heft 1 (1935), pp. 163 - 190.

5. A bibliography of Carnap in Erkenntnis (Leipzig) Band 5 Heft 2/3 (June 18, 1935), pp. 187 - 188.

6. A review of Willard van Orman Quine A System of Logistic, in Ibid., Band 5 Heft 4 (July 31, 1935), pp. 285 - 287.

7. A review of Walter Dubislav Naturphilosophie, in Ibid., pp. 287 - 288.

8. A review of Arend Heyting Mathematische Grundlagenforschung, in Ibid., pp. 288 - 289.

9. A review of Karl Popper Logik der Forschung, in Ibid., pp. 290 - 294.

10. "Le Probleme de la logique de la science. Science formelle et science du reel." Trad. due general Ernest Vouillemin, Actualites scientifiques et industrielles 291. (Paris: Hermann & Cie., 1935). 37 pages.

Translation of 1934-5 and 1935-2.


1. "Discussion" in Actes du huiteme Congres international de philosophie a Prague 2 - 7 septembre 1934 (Prague: Comite d'organisation du Congres, 1936). Despositaire: Orbis, S.A., Prague. 1103 pages.

Work by Carnap and Neurath appears on pp. 244 - 245.

2. "Die Methode der logischen Analyse" appears in Ibid., pp. 142 - 145. There is a discussion by Carnap and others on pp. 158 - 159.

3. "Von der Erkenntnistheorie zur Wissenschaftslogik" in Actes du Congres international de philosophie scientifique et empirisme logique Actualites scientifiques et industrielles, 388. (Paris: Hermann & Cie., 1936). pp. 36 - 41.

4. "Über die Einheitssprache der Wissenschaft: Logische Bemerkungen zum Projekt einer Enzyklopädie" Ibid., [fasc.] 2. Unite de la science Actualites scientifiques et industrielles, 389. Pp. 60 - 70.

5. "Wahrheit und Bewährung" Ibid., [fasc.] 4. Induction et probabilite. Actualites scientifiques et industrielles, 391. Pp. 18 - 23.

6. "Truth in Mathematics and Logic" The Journal of Symbolic Logic (Menasha, Wisconsin), volume 1 number 2 (June 1936), p. 59.

This is an abstract of a paper Carnap presented on September 1, 1936 at the Harvard Tercentenary Conference of Arts and Sciences. The full paper was not published.

7. "Truth in Mathematics and Logic" Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society (Menasha, Wisconsin and New York), volume 42 number 9, part 1 (September 1936), p. 642.

The same as the preceding item.

8. "Existe-t-il des premisses de la science qui soient incontrolables?" Trad. par Henri Buriot-Darsiles. "Scientia" (Rivista di scienza) (Bologna). Volume 60, Number 293 (September 1 1936), pp. 166 - 188.

Carnap's original German paper was never published.

9. "Über Extremalaxiome" Von Rudolf Carnap und Friedrich Bachmann. Erkenntnis (Leipzig) Band 6 Heft 3 (October 31, 1936), pp. 166 - 188.

10, "Testability and Meaning" Philosophy of Science (Baltimore) Volume 3 Number 4 (October 1936), pp. 419 - 471; Volume 4 Number 1 (January 1937), pp. 1 - 40.

Contents: Introduction (sections 1 - 4)--Our problem: Confirmation. Testing and meaning. The older requirement of veriafiability. Confirmation instead of verification. The material and the formal idioms. Logical analysis of Confirmation and testing (sections 5 - 10)--Some terms and symbols of Logic. Reducibility of confirmation. Definitions. Reduction sentences. Introductive chains. Reduction and definition. Empirical analysis of confirmation and testing (sections 11 - 16)--Observable and realizable predicates. Confirmability. Method of testing. Testability. A remark about positivism and physicalism. Sufficient bases. The construction of a language-system (sections 17 - 28)--The problem of a criterion of meaning. The construction of a language-system L. Atomic sentences; primitive predicates. The choice of a psychological or a physical basis. Introduced atomic predicates. Molecular sentences. Molecular languages. The critical problem: Universal and existential sentences. The scale of languages. Incompletely confirmalbe hypotheses in physics. The principle of empiricism. Confirmability of predictions. Bibliography.


1. The Logical Syntax of Language Translated by Amethe Smeaton, Countess von Zeppelin. International Library of Psychology, Philosophy and Scientific Method, gen. ed., C. K. Ogden. (London: Kegan Paul Trench, Trubner & Co., 1937). 352 pages.

Revised and enlarged translation of 1934-6.


Index of Carnap's Syntactic Variables with Page References

2. "Logic" in Factors Determining Human Behavior by Edgar Douglas Adrian and others. Harvard Tercentenary Publications. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1937). Pp. 107 - 118.

3. "Einheit der Wissenschaft durch Einheit der Sprache" in Travaux du IXe Congres international de philosophie, Congres Descartes [fasc.] 4. L'Unite de la science: La Methode et les methodes, [Ier partie]. Actualites scientifiques et industrielles, number 533. (Paris: Hermann & Cie., 1937). Pp. 51 - 57.

4. Notes For Symbolic Logic Chicago, 1937. Distributed by the University of Chicago Bookstore. 37 mimeographed pages.

Notes for a course in logic at the University of Chicago.


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