Oates Essay

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English 101

³Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been²
In Joyce Carol Oates¹ ³Where Are you Going, Where Have You Been², there is a clear interpretation of evil in Arnold Friend and how he as a demon tries to pull Connie into the dark world of sex and emotion. Oates seems to extract scenarios of real life and add them into her story. The character of Arnold Friend is more or less what really is out there. The harsh reality that Oates includes in her story is that there are demons like Arnold. Many people have interpreted Friend¹s character as the Pied Piper of Tucson who was a mass murderer who killed teens.(Hurley 372). By incorporating more life like realities in the story, Oates can construct the evil of Friend in an almost believable setting.
There are many clues in the story that hint that Arnold Friend is not a friend at all, but is in fact a demon come to take Connie away. When we first meet Arnold Friend, it is obvious that Connie has an uneasy feeling about him and feels violated by his presence. For instance, Arnold right away starts to ask Connie if ³(She) wansta come for a ride.² (Oates 1012). Arnold seems to be pressuring Connie from the start and is obviously not there just to take her for a ride. The ³ride² that Arnold talks of could possibly even have a sexual connotation that Connie does not pick up on because she is so young and blind to the world of sexual pleasures that Arnold lives in. Oates chooses words too carefully to show that Arnold is a devious snake. Connie sees Arnold many times as an evil character and letting the reader know by describing Arnold as a ³pumpkin, except it wore sunglasses.² (Oates 1013). In this passage Connie relates Arnold to a Halloween figure and in the same quote refers to Arnold as ³it². At other times Oates describes Arnold¹s eyes as evil. ³He grinned so broadly his
eyes became slits and she saw how thick the lashes were, thick and black as if painted with a black tar-like material.² (Oates 1015). It is apparent that Oates uses descriptions such as these to illustrate an unhuman quality in a human form. Another interesting word choice that Oates uses is when Arnold is talking perversely to Connie and she comes back with ³People don¹t talk like that, you¹re crazy,² (Oates 1017). This helps to illustrate the fact that Connie does not recognize Arnold as human. The reader may feel that Arnold is just a pushy jerk with a crush on Connie, at least up to this point. It is not until Connie begins to get upset and threaten to call the police that the reader sees the true demonic side of Arnold Friend.
Arnold Friend knows too much about everything and everyone to only be a person especially one who is not from around the same area as Connie. Arnold claims to know all of Connie¹s friends and where her family is at which scares Connie into asking Arnold how he knows so much and his only response is, ³I know everybody.² (Oates 1014). The omniscient capabilities that Arnold shows are just more justifications of his being a demon, or the devil himself. Arnold not only knows what is going on in the world around Connie, but also what she is thinking and how she is as a person. Arnold knows that Connie is unhappy with her parents in general and taps into this sensitive spot with Connie as a way to bring her outside and go with him. He felt that if he could draw Connie outside it would have to be with sex , for Arnold knows that this is what intrigues the young girl.
The most obvious reason that many believe Oates is portraying Arnold as a demon is the way Arnold must use trickery and blackmail to lure the innocent Connie out of her home and into his clutches. When Connie says she will call the police to restrain Arnold, he then becomes irate and says he will enter the house and says, ³You won¹t want that.² (Oates 1018). This harsh threat shows to Connie that he is capable of anything and intimidates her not to call the police. The demon then goes on to tell
Connie that she better take a ride with him or else he will wait for her family to come home and ³they¹re all going to get it.² (Oates 1019). Not wanting anything to happen to her family, Connie eventually gives in and goes beyond the threshold of her door and into Arnold¹s realm. Many people feel that it is Connie¹s compulsive sex drive that destroys her in the end.(Rubin 42). It is true that Connie has an inquisitive fascination with sex as do most pubescent young adults, but is not this that forces to go with Arnold. Yes, Connie is an adolescent but is probably more scared than fascinated with this man. Connie had always dreamed of love and how it would always be just like in the movies and songs, but this was different. Arnold made Connie afraid of love and sex and he tried to trick her into coming with him by saying nice and sweet things such as; ³We¹ll go out to a nice field, out in the country here where it smells so nice and its sunny,² (Oates 1020).
In the end, Connie seems to be drawn outside by Arnold¹s powers. The ³vast sunlit reaches of land² that Oates writes about are new experiences that Connie has never before experienced. The new lands that Connie sees behind Arnold are symbolic of new experiences that Arnold will show her, and possibly sex. Whether or not she wants to be exposed to sex, Arnold is going to make sure that Connie is exposed to it, and most likely violently.
Some people interpret that Connie was just having a ³daymare² (Rubin 43), but if it were true that Connie was only dreaming, then Arnold¹s character would still have the same effect on Connie in being a demonic creature and exposing her to the sins of sexual pleasure. Arnold is a character that must be presented to Connie in some point of her life. Oates tries to incorporate the idea that not everyone is your friend and love is not always what you see in the movies or hear in music. Oates attempts to use an extreme reality and unfortunately, Connie has to learn the hard way.

Works Cited

Hurley, D.F. ³Impure Realism: Joyce Carol Oates¹ ³Where Are You Going, Where
Have You Been?² Studies in Short Fiction Summer, 1991: 371-375.

Rubin, Larry ³Oates¹ ³Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?²
Explicator 1981 v42 : 57-60.

Piwinski, David J ³Oates¹ ³Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?²
Explicator, Spring 1991: 195.

Oates, Joyce Carol. ³Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?² The Story and
Its Writer. Ed. Ann Charters. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin Press 1995

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Against Nature

An essay by

Joyce Carol Oates


"I am concerned with only one thing, the moral and social conditions of my generation."

Interview with the Chicago Tribune, book world editor.

Opening | Text | Interpretation | Word use | Organizing our approach | Her view | Her question | Argument | Structure | Use of other authors

Oates uses Thoreau's passage here to argue her point:

"She excites an expectation that she cannot satisfy."

Henry David Thoreau, 1854

"It eludes us even as it prepares to swallow us up, books and all."

line 10

The entire article is here.



See http://2010yeagleyenglish.pbworks.com/f/Against Nature by Oates019.pdf


Title | her point | discovering motives | basic format | uses of evidence | authority | structure | means | argument



In Against Nature, author Joyce Carol Oates takes us on an inward journey to encounter the exterior quality of all our lives and as she moves us through the grotesque and smarmy[1] imagery of nature writing –even in references to excellent literature [2] – to challenge our prejudices.


“Nothing is accidental in the universe -- this is one of my Laws of Physics -- except the entire universe itself, which is Pure Accident, pure divinity.”

Joyce Carol Oates 


J. M. W. Turner's "Frosty Morning," oil on canvass, 1813. [3]


What does she say?


She allows us to take nothing for granted, as she examines our biases so that we are stripped of any reasonable emotional defense when she turns the argument upside down; leaving us with little in the way to rationally challenge her conclusion.



lines 33-34, ¶ 22- p. 843.

Title | her point | discovering motives | basic format | uses of evidence | authority | structure | means | argument | source

Discovering the complexity of motive when writing:

Joyce Carol Oates,

"The subject is there only by the grace of the author's language,"

Oates, Against Nature; Anthology. page 843, line 31-32.

If that is true, then the structure of the essay reveals a deliberate attempt to frame and then reveal in the frames a set of opposites, though starting in a deeply personal and ending an a personal manner of expressing a complex story.



She suggests eight to ten absent characteristics we all overlook due to our prejudices when considering "nature" and nature writing in a double format.


The Writer’s resistance to Nature.
                    BY JOYCE CAROL OATES

It has no sense of humor: in its beauty, as its ugliness, or its neutrality, there is no
It lacks a moral purpose.
It lacks a satiric dimension, registers no irony.
Its pleasures lack resonance, being accidental; its horrors, even when premeditated, are
equally perfunctory, “red in tooth and claw,” et cetera.
It lacks a symbolic subtext- excepting that provided by man.
It has no (verbal) language.
It has no interest in ours.
It inspires a painfully limited set of responses in “nature writers”- REVERENCE, AWE,

Her essay


"It eludes us even as it prepares to swallow us up [3], books and all.

I was lying on my back in the dirt gravel of the towpath beside the Delaware and Raritan Canal, Titusville, New Jersey, staring up at the sky and trying, with no success, to overcome a sudden attack of tachycardia that had come upon me out of nowhere- such attacks are always “out of nowhere,” that’s their charm – and all around me Nature thrummed with life, the air smelling of moisture and sunlight, the canal reflecting the sky, red-winged blackbirds testing their spring calls; the usual. I’d become the jar in Tennessee,b a fictitious center, or parenthesis, aware beyond my erratic heartbeat of the numberless heartbeats of the earth, its pulsing, pumping life, sheer life, incalculable.

Struck down in the midst of motion –I’d been jogging a minute before– I was “out of  time” like a fallen, stunned boxer, privileged (in an abstract manner of speaking) to be an involuntary witness to the random, wayward, nameless motion on all sides of me. Paroxysmal tachycardia can be fatal, but rarely; if the heartbeat accelerates to 250-270 beats a minute you’re in trouble, but the average attack is about 100-150 beats and mine seemed about average; the trick now was who prevent it from getting worse. Brainy people try brainy strategies, such as thinking calming thoughts, pseudo-mystic thoughts,  If I die now it’s a good death, that sort of thing, if I die this is a good place and  good time; the idea is to deceive the frenzied heartbeat that, really, you don’t care: you hadn't any other plans for the afternoon. The important thing with tachycardia is to prevent panic! you must prevent panic! otherwise you'll have to be taken by ambulance to the closest emergency room, which is not so very nice a way to spend the afternoon, really. So I contemplated the blue sky overhead. The earth beneath my head Nature surrounding me on all sides; I couldn't quite see it, but I could hear it, smell it, sense it, there is something there, no mistake about it."

Do continue to the entire essay.

Title | her point | discovering motives | basic format | uses of evidence | authority | structure | means | argument | source

Format (continued)

"all around me nature thrummed a with life..."


She experienced an attack of Paroxysmal tachycardia.


Along the Delaware and Raritan Canal, amidst a restored section of a "nature path," for joggers.


In an almost conversational style to begin the essay she then turns her prose into analyzing other writers and turns into being a literary analyst, an observer, and eventually a poet.

"The earth seems to shift forward as a presence, hard, emphatic, not mere surface but a genuine force."

. . . ."Nothing to be said about it expresses it, nothing touches it, it's an absolute against which nothing human can be measured . . . .Moving through space and time by way of your own volition you inhabit an interior consciousness, a hallucinatory consciousness, it might be said, . . . ."

"The interior is invaded by the exterior."

Paragraph ¶ 23, p. 842.


Tie this to:

"Nature" is not a "single coherent noun" 

paragraph ¶ 21

"Nature as the self's flattering mirror"

paragraph ¶ 28

"And it pleases our senses, in any case, as the physicists' chill universe of numbers certainly does not."

line from ¶ 30

  Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche         "We pretend we are more simple-minded than we are.

line from ¶ 35

From William B. Yeats she takes: "No, we cannot escape."

line from ¶ 36


Oates creates a paradox out of the alleged inescapable dualism of our human existence:

"My body is a tall column of light & heat  'I' vs. 'it' "


She quotes Dr. Johnson, "the inexpressible need not be expressed."

SeeVisual Learning.html - question


Title | her point | discovering motives | basic format | uses of evidence | authority | structure | means | argument


Words                                              Evidence

an inward journey                                        "completely oblivious to [her] the predicament"

to encounter the exterior quality of                               "one vast democratic grave"                 


all our lives and                                           The color of the sky "a mere optical illusion"              

p. 59.

through the grotesque and smarmy                               

Paragraphs; ¶s, 17-18-19-20,                p. 60.


"In this fantastical structure the 'I' is deluded as to its sovereignty."

√       "astonishing secret is that the 'I' doesn't exist – but behaves as if it does, as if it were one, not many."

paragraph ¶ 41.

She alludes to?

A classical allusion:

"In any case where is nature? one might (skeptically) inquire. Who has looked upon her / its face and survived?"

paragraph ¶, 21.

Actaeon looks upon the goddess Diana is her classical allusion here.

The hunter Actaeon, or so the poet Ovid tells us, accidentally spied the bare Diana (Artemis) while bathing in her sacred grove amongst her nymphs. Diana was the goddess of the hunt, associated with the moon, and the very embodiment of nature. For such an act of unsanctioned voyeurism Actaeon was punished for his intrusion having looked upon "naked nature."

“Now you are free to tell that you have seen me all unrobed—if you can tell.”
(Artemis to Actaeon. Ovid, Metamorphoses 3.192).

His punishment involves the hunter Actaeon being transformed (presumably by the goddess Diana in anger) into the hunted stag. Seized upon by his own hunting hounds, Actaeon is devoured by these incensed beasts as the ultimate penalty for having looked upon the disrobed goddess as emblematic of "nature's face."


Oates' question:

"Nature is mouths, or maybe a single mouth. Why glamorize it, romanticize it . . . . Nature is more than a mouth–it's a dazzling variety of mouths. And it pleases the senses, in any case, as the physicists' chill universe of numbers certainly does not."

line 30+


"An event to rethink all the acceptable cliches that reinforce our narrow perspectives."



Title | her point | discovering motives | basic format | uses of evidence | authority | structure | means | argument


Oates in the essay does the following:


  1. Poem "The writer's resistance to Nature"
  2. Personal encounter (near death; hence: out of control) {setting}
  3. A complete brief sketch of the argument: dimensions, illusions, infinity & necessity.
  4. references to authors:
    1. Wallace Stevens - metaphor of the Jar
    2. Emily Dickinson - alludes to the buzzing of a fly
    3. Henry David Thoreau, "yet another, and ingenious form of storytelling"
    4. Shakespeare'sKing Lear
    5. Robert Frost allusion
    6. Herman Melville
    7. Oscar Wilde
    8. Castigating Thoreau's transcendentalism
    9. Friedrich Neitszche
    10. William Butler Yeats' poem
    11. returns to Wallace Stevens for support "The writer's resistance to Nature"
  5. "Early Nature memories. . . ." Childhood memories, the grotesque
  6. "My resistance to Nature writing" -- her personal perspective revealed
  7. Inference, an attack on Platonism "anything other than . . . is - ness."
  8. A classical allusion to the story of Diana and Actaeon
  9. She questions her own expression, at least rhetorically "isn't this all exaggeration?"
  10. Nature as a layered manuscript
  11. Using Thoreau's duality of seeing Nature as both experience and over soul
  12. Melville's "a blankness ten times blank."
  13. Oscar Wilde is used to reveal her thesis clearly.
  14. Poem Byzantium, by Yeats
  15. Her voice in the revelation (hyper-reality) conveys the climax of the piece.
  16. The personal story (in control) of the ants in search of her poem.

Title | her point | discovering motives | basic format | uses of evidence | authority | structure | means | argument


Oates deliberately uses many other writers to draw on for pushing her argument.                                                 


"She is our creation"says Oscar Wilde"It is in ourbrains that she quickens to life."

p. 62.

The goal is to unmask our pretensions and challenge our biased, hobbling prejudices.  

                             "our fiercely romantic expectations."      

p. 62.

"Why glamorize it, romanticize it..."

She quotes recognized literature whose authors are an easily appreciated literary or critical authority:

Henry David Thoreau

"A palimpsest 4 of sorts you choose to read, layer by layer, always with care, always cautiously, in proportion to your psychological strength."

These layers of sedimentary rock are like pages of a book that we can read and the cover page is rewritten – hence a palimpsest – of overwritten layers by accumulating debris and dust, called loess.

Opening | Text | Interpretation | Word use | Organizing our approach | Her view | Her question | Argument | Structure | Use of authors


She skillfully and specifically refers to other authors as leverage to her point

Oscar Wilde

William B. Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium, his poem's last stanza is that portion she quoted.

Wallace Stevens has written and she quotes him:

"In the presence of extraordinary actuality, consciousness takes the place of imagination."

Her voice:

"In any case, without the 'I'. . . the microscopic life-particles would die with it...."

“Homo sapiens is the species that invents symbols in which to invest passion and authority, then forgets that symbols are inventions.”

“We inhabit ourselves without valuing ourselves, unable to see that here, now, this very moment is sacred; but once it's gone - its value is incontestable”

Joyce Carol Oates

What are the key points.

Writing, all about

Environmental literature defined

Themes in EL | Why a thesis is not a theme | Writing Thematically

Title | her point | discovering motives | basic format | uses of evidence | authority | structure | means | argument

Oates, Joyce Carol. “Against Nature.” The Norton Reader An Anthology of Nonfiction. Ed. Linda H. Peterson and John C. Brereton. 11th ed. New York: Norton, 2004. pp. 621-627.

The selection is from Oates' 1988 book: ( Woman ) Writer: Occasions and Opportunities. See http://2010yeagleyenglish.pbworks.com/f/Against Nature by Oates019.pdf

[3] Of the dusk sky She quotes Oscar Wilde saying "it was simply a very second-rate Turner," p. 62.

[4] palimpsest – a manuscript or piece of writing material on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for later writing but of which traces remain.
• something reused or altered but still bearing visible traces of its earlier form persist as clues to what lies beneath that was original.

[a] thrum, thrummed (past participle) a continuous rhythmic humming sound; airplane drone, cicadas in the summer, bees' or flying insects' noise.

[b] The reference is to a short poem by Wallace Stevens (1909) "Anecdote of the Jar"

"I placed a jar in Tennessee . . . .

It took dominion everywhere.   
The jar was gray and bare.
It did not give of bird or bush,   
Like nothing else in Tennessee."


Opening | Text | Interpretation | Word use | Organizing our approach | Her view | Her question | Argument | Structure | Use of authors


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