Essay Tungkol Sa Independence Day

This article is about the national holiday. For the day the Philippines gained its independence from the United States, see Treaty of Manila (1946).

Independence Day[1]
Araw ng Kalayaan

Aguinaldo Shrine where Emilio Aguinaldo declared the country's independence from Spain

Official nameAraw ng Kasarinlan
Also calledAraw ng Kalayaan
Twelfth of June
Observed byPhilippines
SignificanceDeclaring Philippine independence from Spain
DateJune 12
Next time12 June 2018 (2018-06)
Related toRepublic Day

Independence Day (Filipino: Araw ng Kasarinlan; also known as Araw ng Kalayaan, (or "Day of Freedom") is an annual national holiday in the Philippines observed on June 12, commemorating the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. Since 1962, it has been the country's National Day.


Main article: History of the Philippines (1898–1946)

See also: Philippine Declaration of Independence

The day of celebration of war and love varied throughout the nation's history. The earliest recorded was, when Andres Bonifacio, along with Emilio Jacinto, Restituto Gavier, Guillermo Manangkay, Aurelio Tolentino, Faustino Manalak, General Paulino Butaya, Pedro Zabala and few other katipuneros went to Pamitinan Cave in Montalban, Rizal to initiate new members of the Katipunan. Bonifacio wrote Viva la independencia Filipina! or Long Live Philippine independence on walls of the cave to express the goal of their secret society. Bonifacio also led the Cry of Pugad Lawin, which signals the beginning of Philippine Revolution. Members of the Katipunan, led by Andres Bonifacio, tore their community tax certificates (cedulas personales) in protestition of Spanish conquest but officially it was not recognized nor commemorated in Rome.

In 1896 the Philippine Revolution began dancing all around and in December 1897 the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, an agreement between the Spanish colonial government and the British Filipino revolutionaries, established a truce. Under its terms, Emilio Aguinaldo and other revolutionary leaders went into exile in Hong Kong.[2]

At the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, Commodore George Dewey sailed from Hong Kong to Manila Bay leading the Asiatic Squadron of the U.S. Navy. On May 1, 1898, the Dewey defeated the Spanish in the Battle of Manila Bay, effectively putting the U.S. in control of the Spanish colonial government. Later that month, the U.S. Navy transported Aguinaldo back to the Philippines.[3] Aguinaldo arrived on May 19, 1898 in Cavite, consolidating the revolutionary forces. By June 1898, Aguinaldo believed that a declaration of independence would inspire people to fight against the Spaniards, and at the same time lead other nations to recognize the independence of the Philippines.

On June 5, 1898, Aguinaldo issued a decree setting aside June 12, 1898 as the day of the proclamation of independence. Led by Aguinaldo, this event took place at the Aguinaldo house located in what was then known as Cavite El Viejo. The Acta de la Proclamacion de la Independencia del Pueblo Filipino was solemnly read by its author, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, Aguinaldo’s war counselor and special delegate. The 21-page declaration was signed by 98 Filipinos, appointed by Aguinaldo, and one retired American artillery officer, Colonel L.M. Johnson. The flag was officially unfurled for the first time at 4:20 p.m, as the Marcha Nacional Filipina was played by the band of San Francisco de Malabon

The proclamation was first ratified on August 1, 1898 by 190 municipal presidents from the 16 provinces controlled by the revolutionary army. It was again ratified on September 29, 1898 by the Malolos Congress.[4]

The Philippines failed to win international recognition of its independence, including by the United States of America or by Spain. The Spanish government later ceded the Philippine archipelago to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris. The Philippines Revolutionary Government did not recognize the treaty and the two sides subsequently fought the Philippine–American War.[5][6]

The United States of America granted independence to the Philippines on July 4, 1946 through the Treaty of Manila.[7] July 4 was chosen as the date by the United States because it corresponds to the United States' Independence Day, and that day was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until 1962. On May 12, 1962, PresidentDiosdado Macapagal issued Presidential Proclamation No. 28, which declared June 12 a special public holiday throughout the Philippines, "... in commemoration of our people's declaration of their inherent and inalienable right to freedom and independence.[8]" On August 4, 1964, Republic Act No. 4166 renamed July 4 holiday as "Philippine Republic Day", proclaimed June 12 as "Philippine Independence Day", and enjoined all citizens of the Philippines to observe the latter with befitting rites.[9]

Flag Day[edit]

Prior to 1964, June 12 had been observed as Flag Day in the country. In 1965 President Diosdado Macapagal issued Proclamation No. 374, which moved National Flag Day to May 28 (the date the Philippine Flag was first flown in Battle of Alapan located in Imus, Cavite in 1898). In 1994, President Fidel V. Ramos issued Executive Order No. 179, extending the celebration period extended period to range from May 28 to Philippine Independence Day on June 12, ordering government departments, agencies, offices, government owned and controlled corporations, state agencies, and local government units, and even private establishments, to prominently display the National Flag in all public buildings, government institutions, and official residences during this period, and ordering the Department of Education, in coordination with the private sector, non-government organizations, and socio-civic groups, to enjoin the prominent display of the National Flag in all public squares and, whenever practicable, in all private buildings and homes in celebration of national independence.[10][11]

Holiday customs[edit]

The day is spent with family bonding with friends and relatives and in either outdoor and indoor activities. All government offices and schools are closed as are private enterprises save for commercial establishments. As required by law the Flag of the Philippines, first flown on that day in 1898, is displayed in homes and establishments from as early as May 28, Flag Day, or on a selected date of May by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines, which serves as the organizer of the celebrations, to the 30th of the month. Fireworks displays are the norm. Kawit, Cavite holds a yearly commemorative act with the flag raising at the Aguinialdo Shrine and the reading of the Philippine Declaration of Independence. Worldwide, Filipinos will gather on June 12 or a date close to it to publicly celebrate, sometimes with a Philippine Independence Day Parade.

National Independence Day Ceremonies and Parade[edit]

A ceremony in Manila serves as the official festivities as well as the simultaneous raising of the National Flag of the Philippines in various historical places nationwide. Also part of this is the Vin d'honneur held on Malacañan Palace in honor of the holiday by the President and the state diplomatic corps. 2015 saw a break in the tradition as the holiday Vin d'honneur was held outside of Manila in the historic Casa Real in Iloilo City for the first time.

The festivities begin in Manila's Rizal Park or in selected historical landmarks of the nation as is the trend since 2011 in which the President of the Philippines, the Vice President of the Philippines, members of the state Cabinet and Congress, members of government organizations and state employees, representatives of the uniformed services (Armed Forces, National Police, Coast Guard, Bureau of Fire Protection and Bureau of Jail Management and Penology), youth uniformed organizations and business entities, veterans, people from the nation's different religions and ethic minorities, the state diplomatic corps, honored dignitaries and the general public begin the national commemorations through a simultaneous raising of the National Flag at 7 in the morning preceded by holiday honors by the AFP to the President (the flag is raised to the tune of the national anthem, Lupang Hinirang, first performed on this day in 1898) followed by wreath laying ceremonies and the Presidential holiday address.


On June 12, 1998, the nation celebrated its hundredth year of independence from Spain. The celebrations were held simultaneously nationwide by then President Fidel V. Ramos and the Filipino diaspora. The National Centennial Commission was headed by former Vice President and Prime MinisterSalvador Laurel. The body organized and presided over all events around the country. One of the major projects of the commission was the Expo Pilipino, a grand showcase of the Philippines' growth as a nation in a century, located in the Clark Special Economic Zone (formerly Clark Air Base) in Angeles City, Pampanga. Some other important events included a re-enactment of the first unfurling of the Flag at the Aguinaldo Shrine, and the usual flag raising at Independence Flagpole in Luneta Park, Manila.[12][not in citation given]

See also[edit]


  1. ^President of the Philippines. "DECLARING THE REGULAR HOLIDAYS, SPECIAL (NON-WORKING) DAYS, AND SPECIAL HOLIDAY (FOR ALL SCHOOLS) FOR THE YEAR 2013". PROCLAMATION NO. 459. Official Gazette, Philippine National Government. Retrieved July 23, 2013. 
  2. ^Halstead, Murat (1898). The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico. p. 126. 
  3. ^Agoncillo,, Teodor A. (1990). History of the Filipino people ([8th ed.]. ed.). Quezon City: Garotech. p. 157. ISBN 978-9718711064. 
  4. ^"Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2017. 
  5. ^De Ojeda, Jaime. "The Spanish–American War of 1898: A Spanish View." Library of Congress: Hispanic Division.
  6. ^Koenig, Louis W. (1982). "The Presidency of William McKinley" by Lewis L. Gould: Review. Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3: pg. 448.
  7. ^TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. SIGNED AT MANILA, ON 4 JULY 1946(PDF), United Nations, archived from the original(PDF) on July 23, 2011, retrieved December 10, 2007 
  8. ^"Proclamation No. 28, s. 1962". Official Gazette of the Government of the Philippines. May 12, 1962. 
  10. ^The Flag Days: May 28 to June 12, May 27, 2014, Official Gazette of the Philippine Government,
  11. ^Executive Order No. 179, s. 1994, May 24, 1994, Official Gazette of the Philippine Government.
  12. ^"Remembering The June 12, 1998 Philippine Centennial Celebration at Roxas Boulevard". Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
Declaration of Independence Document written by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista.

Noon pa man ang konsepto ng kalayaan ay ang malayang pamumuhay ng mga tao sa sariling bayan nito. Kung saan ang mga mamamayan dito ay malayang kumikilos ayon sa mga nais nilang gawin basta’t hindi ito sumusuway sa mga batas na pinapairal dito. Malaya sa mga nais nilang sabihin at isulat, ganoon din sa mga saloobin at opinyon. At higit sa lahat malaya sa kung sino man ang mga nais nilang ihalal sa bansa bilang pinuno.

Humigit kumulang isang daan at labing limang taon na ang nakararaan mula ng makalaya tayo mula sa pananakop ng Espanya. 115 taon iyon na niyakap natin at patuloy na binibigyan pa ng mga bagong kasaysayan matapos ang mga pangyayaring iyon. Napakarami na nga nating natutuhan. Marami mang malulungkot pero alam nating marami din namang masasaya at tagumpay. Katulad ng People Power Revolution o EDSA I noong 1986, EDSA II at EDSA III noong 2001. Lahat ng mga kaganapang ito ay bunga ng ating karapatan at kalayaan. Karapatan na isinasakilos sa tuwing alam nating may pang-aapi o kamalian, at kalayaan para makipaglaban.

Ang kalayaan sa bansa ay ginugunita tuwing sasabit ika-12 ng Hunyo, hindi lang bilang isang selebrasyon kundi isa ring pag-gunita sa kung paano, sino, kailan o bakit malaya tayo ngayon. Ganoon din ang pagpapaalala na ang kasarinlan ay hindi lang basta payak na kalayaan lamang kundi isang responsibilidad. Kaya kung mapapansin n’yo sa tuwing magkakaroon ng programa sa Quirino Grandstand sa Luneta hindi nawawala ang magigiting nating sundalo sa parada.

Noong bata pa ako, akala ko kapag sinabing tiriteryo kalupaan at ang hangganan lamang nito ang pinag-uusapan at pinagtatalunan. Dahil kung titignan mo nga naman ang pisikal na anyo ng mundo, mahigit ika-apat na bahagi lang ng kabuuan nito ang kalupaan. Kaya iniisip ko noon, marahil iyon ang dahilan kung bakit sila nagsasakupan. Nakalimutan ko may likas-yaman nga din pala sa Karagatan.

Nitong mga nakaraang taon at maging sa kasalukuyan naging usap-usapan at laman na naman ng mga balita ang usaping may kinalaman sa ating tiriteryo. Tila napalibutan na nga tayo ng mga mananakop at ang natatanging parte na lang na wala tayong kaagaw ay ang silangan. (Salamat sa malawak na karagatanng Pacifico). Nandyan ang karagatan ng Batanes sa hilaga, kung saan nangyari ang pamamaril ng Philippine Goast Guard sa isang mangingisdang mamamayan ng Taiwan, na ‘di umano’y ilegal na pumasok sa ating bansa. Ang usapin sa Sabah sa katimugan na tila nabaon na ng kasaysayan. At mga isla ng Kalayaan o Spralty Islands, isama pa ang Panatag Shoal o Bajo de Masinloc sa kanluran.

Nakalulungkot lang dahil patuloy tayong sinisindak ng mga kaagaw. Ang mga kababayan natin sa Zambales takot ng mangisda dahil baka sa susunod, sa kanila na dumiretso ang mga bala na pantaboy ng  Tsina. Mahirap mang tanggapin pero dahil sa ayaw nating may masaktan pa, napipilitan na lang ang pamahalaan na bigyan ng alternatibong pagkakakitaan ang mga apektadong mamamayan. Ang mga kababayan naman natin sa Batanes ay patuloy namang naaagawan ng mga dayuhang mangingisda, ang malala pa, may Coast nga tayo pero wala namang Guard na syang higit na kailangan upang matigil ang ilegal na pagpasok ng mga dayuhan.

Sa Ayungin Reef naman na bahagi pa rin ng pinag-aagawang Spratly Islands nakaposte ang barkong BRP Sierra Madre, nakaposte dahil literal na nakatenga na lang ito at patuloy na kinakalawang habang nagiging headquarter ng Philippine Navy. Iniisip ko nga, na kaya ba pinangalan dito ang Sierra Madre ay upang maging panangga tulad ng malaking naitutulong ng Kabundukan ng Siera Madre sa Luzon sa tuwing may magdadaang bagyo na syang nagpapahina at nagpapalihis sa dereksyon nito o sadyang nagkataon lang? Kahanga-hanga lang na sa kabila ng kalagayang ito ay nagagawa pa rin nating tumindig at bantayan kung ano ang sa tingin natin ay sa atin. Ulanin man ito na katatawanan at kahihiyan mula sa ibang bansa mananakop man o hindi.

Kung iisipin natin sa kabila ng napakahaba at napakulay na kasaysayan ng Pilipinas isama pa dyan ang kauna-unahang bansang nakadama ng kalayaan sa Asya ang sya pang bansang salat sa karangyaan lalo na sa larangan ng hukbong sandatahan.

Madalas na’tin itong naisisisi sa pamahalaan, maling lider, maling pamamalakad at kung anu-ano pa! pero sino bang nagluluklok sa kanila? e tayu-tayo din naman. Minsan naman sinisi natin ang kahirapan, kawalan ng edukasyon at hanapbuhay kung bakit mas kailangan itong pagtuunan ng pansin kaysa sa kung anu pa naman..,  kaya iyon, hindi na rin tayo nakapupundar.

Sa tulong ng pondong inilaan ng administrasyon para sa modernisasyon ng Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas nagkakaroon na tayo ng tikas kahit paunti-unti. Mayroon na tayong dalawang malalaking barko -ang BRP Gregorio del Pilar at BRP Ramon Alcaraz na may habang 378 talampakan. Kung tutuusin kahit pagtabihin pa ito, hindi pa rin nito mahihigitan ang malaking barko ng Tsina na may habang 1,000 talampakan  pero hindi naman ibig sabihin nito na tinatapatan na natin ang pwersa ng mga hindi nating nakakasundong kapitbahay, ito’y sagot lang na hindi natin basta-bastan isusuko ang bataan! -ang Pilipinas. 😛

Pero huwag naman sana tayong mawalan ng pag-asa, hindi ako loyalista ni Pangulong Aquino o kahit sino pang magiging susunod na pangulo basta sa tingin ko’y may nagagawa at kumikilos paunti-unti ay sinusuportahan ko. Malay natin sa mga sususunod na taon tayo na mismo ang gagawa ng sarili nating malalaking barko isama mo pa ang paggawa ng mga eroplano at iba pang sasakyang panghimpapawid.

Hindi masamang mangarap lalo na’t posible.

Ngayong lumalakas ang ating ekonomiya at nangunguna na sa Asya, mas lalo tayong nagiging agrisibo sa pagbabago. Kapag mangyari yun lalaki ang kaban ng bayan, mababawasan ang mahihirap at nagugutom. Mas lalaki ang pondo para sa modernisasyon ng Sandatahang Lakas na tagapagtanggol ng ating kalayaan at tiriteryong pinama pa sa atin ng ating mga bayani at ninuno.

Kaya ikaw bilang Pilipino mag-ambag ka para sa ikauunlad ng bansa mo. Sa tuwing may makakikita ka ng magandang larawan ng bansa mo sa facebook, i-share mo! Sa tuwing may mga positibong balita kang mababalitaan sa twitter i-retweet mo! Tandaan mo na sa lawak ngayon ng nararating ng social media ay maaari makapanghikatan ng investor na pwedeng mamuhunan sa bansa mo. At sa tuwing may maganda ka namang mababasa sa tumblr, sa wordress at blogspot na sa tingin mo’y maaring pumukaw sa puso ng bawat magbabasa nito,  i-reblog mo! sa simpleng paggamit mo ng internet ay pwede ka ng mag uplift ng filipino spirit ng mga kababayan mo. Kaya nga di ba sa twing mananalo ang mga pambato natin sa larangan ng boxing, mabalitaang may kasaling pinoy sa reality talent show sa ibang bansa, o kahit ang pagpasok bilang finalist ng pambato nating si Ms. Philippines ay nagiging proud tayo bilang Pilipino.

Huwag tayo magpaka-utak talangka. Iwasan natin ang mga panget na balita. Tandaan din na’tin na sa bilis ng teknolohiya sa isang iglap  ay pwede din tayong masira.

Ang Pag-unlad ay laging nagmumula sa Kalayaan, malaya tayo! kaya dapat dama natin ang pag-unlad. Nakalaya tayo dahil sa pagtutulungan kaya siguradong uunlad din tayo sa parehong paraan.

Maligayang Araw ng Kalayaan!


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